Kidney stones are generated when the amount of urine reduces or the number of calculus forming substances increases in urine. The common type of kidney stones contains calcium oxalate or phosphate.
Other chemicals that can form stones in the urinary tract include amino acids and uric acid. Dehydration due to reduced consumption of liquid or prolonged disruption of water-sharing increases risks of kidney stone formation.
Different barriers for urine excretion can lead to the formation of stones. Kidney stones can also occur due to infection in the urinary tract. Kidney stones are formed more often in white men of 40 to 70 years old. If a person has more than one stone in kidneys, likelihood of further stone formation is high.
Genetics also plays an important role in the formation of kidney stones.
Kidney stones are formed in various diseases, including:
- Gout causes the increase of uric acid in urine and leads to the formation of stones.
- A high percentage of calcium in urine in more than 50% of cases leads to the formation of stones. If a person takes too much calcium from food, the calcium excess is excreted with the urine, oxalate or phosphate stones may occur.
- Other diseases associated with increased risk of kidney stones – kidney diseases, for example, renal tubular acidosis, and certain inherited metabolic disorders. Chronic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure (hypertension) are also associated with increased risk of kidney stones.
- People with irritated bowel syndrome or those who have had some surgeries, the probability of kidney stones formation is higher.
- Certain medications also increase the risk of kidney stones. They include: diuretic medications containing calcium, neutralizing acid environment, and protease inhibitors.
If you understand the causes of kidney stones, you can try to avoid them and hence prevent kidney stone problems.
Related article: Kidney Stones Symptoms